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Small C-Rate doesn't bring longer charging times, it also reduces power output.^ Didn't you mention ultracapacitors could allow for meaningful discharge (propulsion power) rates? Why do you think charging longer than a few hours is a chore? I know it's inconvenient but I'm all for safer battery with higher energy density even if the charge rate sucks.
Imagine a 50kWh battery (similar to UX300e) with a 1C charge/discharge rate, it would have (or keep since Lexus isn't pushing for more) a maximum DC charge rate of 50kW and it would take 1 hour to charge. The same battery would allow only a 50kW electric engine as well... It would require Lexus to get a 150kWh to get the same power output as UX300e has.
Capacitors would allow for higher peaks, but they don't hold as must charge as LiON batteries...
And I agree with you, safety should be paramount, as I didn't knew how violent a thermal runway/crashed battery could be: