It has to do with the different design of diesel and gasoline engines, dictated by their different operating cycles.One thing I don't understand is why some people have concerns with the reliability of turbocharged gasoline engines. Some of the toughest trucks in the world use turbodiesel. Is there a big difference between the two?
The diesel engine cycle relies on high compression and ignition of the fuel by compression of the air in the cylinder; to do this, the diesel engine block has to be strong. Turbochargers on diesel engines then add more air. Adding more air does not add that much more stress so turbocharging a diesel engine does not add much more stress.
The gasoline engine relies on compression of an air-fuel mixture. Compressing this mixture too much risks early ignition (pre-ignition) due to the high temperature; cylinder compression is kept low. Lower compression allows a lighter engine block. Adding turbocharging can greatly increase cylinder pressures and heat; the extremely high RPM of the turbocharger also raises temperatures in the engine bay. Higher compression and higher temperatures add a lot of damaging stress to an otherwise lightly-stressed engine.